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Diabetes Journal current issue
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Jurnale medicale Diabetes Journal current issue

22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

5α-Reductase type 1 (5αR1) catalyses A-ring reduction of androgens and glucocorticoids in liver, potentially influencing hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Male mice, homozygous for a disrupted 5αR1 allele (5αR1 knockout [KO] mice), were studied after metabolic (high-fat diet) and fib

mai mult
Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Although the haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 genotype is associated with a lower coronary artery disease (CAD) risk in diabetes, we recently reported an increased stroke incidence in type 1 diabetes with Hp 1-1. We, thus, evaluated differences in earlier brain vascular abnormality markers by Hp using neuroimag

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Circadian rhythm is crucial for preventing hepatic insulin resistance, although the mechanism remains uncovered. Here we report that the wake-active hypothalamic orexin system plays a key role in this regulation. Wild-type mice showed that a daily rhythm in blood glucose levels peaked at the awake p

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) demonstrated that a mean of 6.5 years of intensive therapy aimed at near-normal glucose levels reduced the risk of development and progression of retinopathy by as much as 76% compared with conventional therapy. The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interve

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

We previously showed that peripheral neuropathy of the bone marrow was associated with loss of circadian rhythmicity of stem/progenitor cell release into the circulation. Bone marrow neuropathy results in dramatic changes in hematopoiesis that lead to microvascular complications, inflammation, and r

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Peripheral tolerance is partially controlled by the expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs) in lymph node stromal cells (LNSCs). We previously identified a transcriptional regulator, deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor 1 (Deaf1), that can regulate PTA expression in LNSCs of the pancreat

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Rapid glycemic improvements following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are frequently attributed to the enhanced GLP-1 response, but causality remains unclear. To determine the role of GLP-1 in improved glucose tolerance after surgery, we compared glucose and hormonal responses to a liquid meal test

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

The retention of endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetes is an attractive clinical goal, which opens possibilities for long-term restoration of glucose metabolism. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) constitute, based on animal studies, a promising interventional strategy for the disease. This

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

The intrauterine environment during pregnancy is a critical factor in the development of diabetes and obesity in offspring. To determine the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on the metabolic health of offspring, 6-week-old C57BL/6 virgin female mice were fed a chow (21%) or high-fat (60

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

We used intravenous arginine with measurements of insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon to examine β-cell and α-cell survival and function in a group of 10 chronic pancreatitis recipients 1–8 years after total pancreatectomy and autoislet transplantation. Insulin and C-peptide responses correlated robust

mai mult
Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, regulates a host of target proteins, including peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)- coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional coregulator that binds to numerous transcription factors in response to deacetylation to promote mito

mai mult
Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Autoimmune β-cell death leads to type 1 diabetes, and with findings that Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) activation contributes to β-cell death, we assessed the effects of iPLA2β inhibition on diabetes development. Administration of FKGK18, a reversible iPLA2β inhibitor, to NOD female mi

mai mult
Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

The central nervous system (CNS) uses glucose independent of insulin. Nonetheless, insulin receptors and insulin-responsive glucose transporters (Glut4) often colocalize in neurons (Glut4 neurons) in anatomically and functionally distinct areas of the CNS. The apparent heterogeneity of Glut4 neurons

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Interconversion of white and brown adipocytes occurs between anabolic and catabolic states. The molecular mechanism regulating this phenotypic switch remains largely unknown. This study explores the role of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1)–mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the c

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Long-term glucocorticoid (GC) treatment induces central fat accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. We demonstrate that microRNA-27b (miR-27b) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of GC-induced central fat accumulation. Overexpression of miR-27b had the same effects as dexamethasone (DEX) treatm

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Bariatric surgery is the most successful strategy for treating obesity, yet the mechanisms for this success are not clearly understood. Clinical literature suggests that plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) rise with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). apoA-IV is secreted from the intestine p

mai mult
Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Insulin resistance (IR) increases cardiovascular morbidity and is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. IR is now recognized to be present in type 1 diabetes; however, its relationship with mitochondrial function is unknown. We determined the relationship between IR and muscle mitochondrial fun

mai mult
Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Inorganic nitrate was once considered an oxidation end product of nitric oxide metabolism with little biological activity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that dietary nitrate can modulate mitochondrial function in man and is effective in reversing features of the metabolic syndrome in mic

mai mult
Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Glucose is an important stimulus for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, but the mechanisms of secretion have not been investigated in integrated physiological models. We studied glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion from isolated perfused rat small intestine. Luminal glucose (5% and 20% w/v) st

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

The Banting Medal for Scientific Achievement is the highest scientific award of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Given in memory of Sir Frederick Banting, one of the key investigators in the discovery of insulin, the Banting Medal is awarded annually for scientific excellence, recognizing si

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Methotrexate (MTX) is a widely used anticancer and antirheumatic drug that has been postulated to protect against metabolic risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes, although the mechanism remains unknown. MTX inhibits 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monop

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Obesity-associated insulin resistance, a common precursor of type 2 diabetes, is characterized by chronic inflammation of tissues, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here we show that B-1a cells, a subpopulation of B lymphocytes, are novel and important regulators of this process. B-1a cells a

mai mult
Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Increases in muscle energy needs activate AMPK and induce sarcolemmal recruitment of the fatty acid (FA) translocase CD36. The resulting rises in FA uptake and FA oxidation are tightly correlated, suggesting coordinated regulation. We explored the possibility that membrane CD36 signaling might influ

mai mult
Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) are paracrine hormones that mediate communication between pancreatic islet endothelial cells (ECs) and β-cells. Our objective was to determine the impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on pancreatic vascularit

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Oxidative stress has been proposed to be a unifying cause for diabetic nephropathy and a target for novel therapies. Here we apply a new endogenous reduction-oxidation (redox) sensor, hyperpolarized (HP) 13C dehydroascorbate (DHA), in conjunction with MRI to noninvasively interrogate the renal redox

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

An epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is linked with the increase in consumption of fructose-containing sugars, such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup. In mammalian cells, fructose is metabolized predominantly via phosphorylation to fructose-1 phosphate by ketohexokinase (KHK) or by alter

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Diabetes Journal current issue
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31
22 Ianuarie 2015 21:31

Posttranslational modifications of self-proteins play a substantial role in the initiation or propagation of the autoimmune attack in several autoimmune diseases, but their contribution to type 1 diabetes is only recently emerging. In the current study, we demonstrate that inflammatory stress, induc

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Diabetes Journal current issue
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