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Jurnale medicale Neurologie

4 Februarie 2015 17:01
4 Februarie 2015 17:01
4 Februarie 2015 17:01
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Chemotaxis is important for the survival of most animals. How the brain translates sensory input into motor output beyond higher olfactory processing centers is largely unknown. We describe a group of excitatory neurons, termed Odd neurons, which are important for Drosophila larval chemotaxis. Odd n

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Autistic traits span a wide spectrum of behavioral departures from typical function. Despite the heterogeneous nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there have been attempts at formulating unified theoretical accounts of the associated impairments in social cognition. A class of prominent theori

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Cholinergic neurons of the brainstem olivary complex project to and inhibit outer hair cells (OHCs), refining acoustic sensitivity of the mammalian cochlea. In all vertebrate hair cells studied to date, cholinergic inhibition results from the combined action of ionotropic acetylcholine receptors and

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Learning can be guided by unexpected success or failure, signaled via dopaminergic positive reward prediction error (+RPE) and negative reward-prediction error (–RPE) signals, respectively. Despite conflicting empirical evidence, RPE signaling is thought to be impaired in drug addiction. To resolve

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4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Voltage-gated Kv4 channels control the excitability of neurons and cardiac myocytes by conducting rapidly activating-inactivating currents. The function of Kv4 channels is profoundly modulated by K+ channel interacting protein (KChIP) soluble auxiliary subunits. However, the in vivo mechanism of the

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Tight coupling between Ca2+ channels and the sensor for vesicular transmitter release at the presynaptic active zone (AZ) is crucial for high-fidelity synaptic transmission. It has been hypothesized that a switch from a loosely coupled to a tightly coupled transmission mode is a common step in the m

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

GABAergic synaptic transmission plays an important role in resetting and synchronizing circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Although the circadian modulation of intrinsic membrane currents and biochemical signaling have been examined in the SCN, the modulation of specific synaptic

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Antiretroviral therapy has increased the life span of HIV+ individuals; however, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) occurrence is increasing in aging HIV patients. Previous studies suggest HIV infection alters autophagy function in the aging CNS and HIV-1 proteins affect autophagy in mono

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Accumulating genetic evidence suggests that schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with individually rare copy number variations (CNVs) of diverse genes, often specific to single cases. However, the causality of these rare mutations remains unknown. One of the rare CNVs found in SZ cohorts is the duplicat

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Perceptual phase entrainment improves speech intelligibility by phase-locking the brain's high-excitability and low-excitability phases to relevant or irrelevant events in the speech input. However, it remains unclear whether phase entrainment to speech can be explained by a passive "following" of r

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Systemic administration of cocaine is thought to decrease the firing rates of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. However, this view is based on categorizations of recorded neurons as DA neurons using preselected electrophysiological characteristics lacking neurochemical confirmation

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

The judgment of whether to accept or to reject an offer is determined by positive and negative affect related to the offer, but affect also induces motivational responses. Rewarding and aversive cues influence the firing rates of many neurons in primate prefrontal and cingulate neocortical regions,

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Formation of functional neural networks requires the coordination of cell surface receptors and downstream signaling cascades, which eventually leads to dynamic remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Although a number of guidance receptors affecting actin cytoskeleton remodeling have been identified, it is

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Clinical audiometry has long focused on determining the detection thresholds for pure tones, which depend on intact cochlear mechanics and hair cell function. Yet many listeners with normal hearing thresholds complain of communication difficulties, and the causes for such problems are not well under

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is a well known consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI), recognizable after spinal shock, during which the bladder is areflexic. NDO emergence and maintenance depend on profound plastic changes of the spinal neuronal pathways regulating bladder function. It is

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Each year, 10 million people worldwide survive the neurologic injury associated with a stroke. Importantly, stroke survivors have more than twice the risk of subsequently developing dementia compared with people who have never had a stroke. The link between stroke and the later development of dement

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

The ability to attend to relevant stimuli and to adapt dynamically as demands change is a core aspect of cognition, and one that is impaired in several neuropsychiatric diseases, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying such cognit

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Replanning ongoing movements following perturbations requires the accurate and immediate estimation of the motor response based on sensory input. Previous studies have used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in humans to demonstrate the participation of the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS)

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Precise regulation of synaptic vesicle (SV) release at the calyx of Held is critical for auditory processing. At the prehearing calyx of Held, synchronous and asynchronous release is mediated by fast and slow releasing SVs within the readily releasable pool (RRP). However, the posthearing calyx has

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Seizures are accompanied by cardiovascular changes that are a major cause of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Seizures activate inflammatory responses in the cardiovascular nuclei of the medulla oblongata and increase neuronal excitability. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypept

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Cerebral ischemic stroke is a worldwide cause of mortality/morbidity and thus an important focus of research to decrease the severity of brain injury. Therapeutic options for acute stroke are still limited. In neurons throughout the brain, "M-type" K+ currents, underlain by KCNQ subunits 2–5, play d

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that responses in auditory cortex to auditory consequences of self-generated actions are modified relative to the responses evoked by identical sounds generated by an external source. Such modifications have been suggested to occur through a corollary discharge sen

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Fragile X syndrome is a common inherited form of mental impairment. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) plays important roles in the regulation of synaptic protein synthesis, and loss of FMRP leads to deficits in learning-related synaptic plasticity and behavioral disability. Previous studie

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Approximately one-third of known deafness genes encode proteins located in the hair bundle, the sensory hair cell's mechanoreceptive organelle. In previous studies, we used mass spectrometry to characterize the hair bundle's proteome, resulting in the discovery of novel bundle proteins. One such pro

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

Sensorimotor abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and among the earliest manifestations of the disorder. They have been studied far less than the social-communication and cognitive deficits that define ASD, but a mechanistic understanding of sensorimotor abnormalities in ASD ma

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

The general view is that both glycine (Eccles, 1964) and GABA (Curtis and Felix, 1971) evoke postsynaptic inhibition in spinal motor neurons. In newborn or juvenile animals, there are conflicting results showing postsynaptic inhibition in motor neurons by corelease of GABA and glycine (Jonas et al.,

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
4 Februarie 2015 17:01

The thalamic reticular nucleus is an important structure governing the recurrent interactions between the thalamus and cortex that may provide a substrate for unified perception. Despite the importance of the TRN, its activity has been scarcely investigated in vivo in animal models, and never in hum

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Journal of Neuroscience current issue
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